Sunday, March 8, 2020

Activity 1 - Simple Random and Stratified Random Samples SP 14(4)(1) E

Activity 1 - Simple Random and Stratified Random Samples SP 14(4)(1) E STAT 1350: Elementary Statistics Collaborative Activity 1 Simple Random and Stratified Random Sampling Sampling Frame The sampling frame provided with this Collaborative Activity represents the student body as of the first day of autumn semester at a small liberal arts school in central Ohio. A Simple Random Sample The college believes that 75% of the student body resides on campus. Use the random number table (attached) to randomly select 10 students. Label the sampling frame using two digit numbers. STEP 1: Label the Sampling Frame STEP 2: Generate Random Numbers starting at row 145 of Table A a. List the 10 students. Indicate whether the student resides on campus or commutes to campus. |Label Number |Dorm or Off Campus|Label Number |Dorm or Off Campus| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | b. What percentage of your SRS live in a dorm? ________________________ c. I selected 5 other SRS of size 10 and recorded the percentage of each sample who lives in a dorm. Compare your percentage from part (b) to the percentages given below. Explain why the percentages are not all the same. 30%; 20%; 30%; 40%; 40%; d. Does your data support the college's belief? Explain why or why not. Stratified Simple Random Sample - a variation of the SRS. To take a Stratified Simple Random Sample, divide the population into 2 or more strata (naturally occurring subgroups). Take a SRS from the first strata then take a SRS from the second strata and so on until you have a SRS from each of the strata. Combine the SRS selected from each strata to make your stratified simple random sample. Pick a stratified sample, by gender of 20 students. Select 10 students from each stratum and record the class rank of each student. First select a SRS of 10 females. Then, continuing on the random number table where you left off, select a SRS of 10 males. Use the labels as you assigned them for the first SRS. STEP 1: Female labels: ____________________ Male: _______________________ STEP 2: Start at row 137 of Table A. a. List the 20 students |Label Number|Gender |Class Rank |Label Number|Gender |Class Rank | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | | |Female | | |Male | | What does your sample reveal about class rank and gender? Answer in complete sentence(s). TABLE A Random digits Line 101 19223 95034 05756 28713 96409 12531 42544 82853 102 73676 47150 99400 01927 27754 42648 82425 36290 103 45467 71709 77558 00095 32863 29485 82226 90056 104 52711 38889 93074 60227 40011 85848 48767 52573 105 95592 94007 69971 91481 60779 53791 17297 59335 106 68417 35013 15529 72765 85089 57067 50211 47487 107 82739 57890 20807 47511 81676 55300 94383 14893 108 60940 72024 17868 24943 61790 90656 87964 18883 109 36009 19365 15412 39638 85453 46816 83485 41979 110 38448 48789 18338 24697 39364 42006 76688 08708 111 81486 69487 60513 09297 00412 71238 27649 39950 112 59636 88804 04634 71197 19352 73089 84898 45785 113 62568 70206 40325 03699 71080 22553 11486 11776 114 45149 32992 75730 66280 03819 56202 02938 70915 115 61041 77684 94322 24709 73698 14526 31893 32592 116 14459 26056 31424 80371 65103 62253 50490 61181 117 38167 98532 62183 70632 23417 26185 41448 75532 118 73190 32533 04470 29669 84407 90785 65956 86382 119 95857 07118 87664 92099 58806 66979 98624 84826 120 35476 55972 39421 65850 04266 35435 43742 11937 121 71487 09984 29077 14863 61683 47052 62224 51025 122 13873 81598 95052 90908 73592 75186 87136 95761 123 54580 81507 27102 56027 55892 33063 41842 81868 124 71035 09001 43367 49497 72719 96758 27611 91596 125 96746 12149 37823 71868 18442 35119 62103 39244 126 96927 19931 36089 74192 77567 88741 48409 41903 127 43909 99477 25330 64359 40085 16925 85117 36071 128 15689 14227 06565 14374 13352 49367 81982 87209 129 36759 58984 68288 22913 18638 54303 00795 08727 130 69051 64817 87174 09517 84534 06489 87201 97245 131 05007 16632 81194 14873 04197 85576 45195 96565 132 68732 55259 84292 08796 43165 93739 31685 97150 133 45740 41807 65561 33302 07051 93623 18132 09547 134 27816 78416 18329 21337 35213 37741 04312 68508 135 66925 55658 39100 78458 11206 19876 87151 31260 136 08421 44753 77377 28744 75592 08563 79140 92454 137 53645 66812 61421 47836 12609 15373 98481 14592 138 66831 68908 40772 21558 47781 33586 79177 06928 139 55588 99404 70708 41098 43563 56934 48394 51719 140 12975 13258 13048 45144

Friday, February 21, 2020

The Global Social and Enviremental Opportunities and Risks Facing Essay

The Global Social and Enviremental Opportunities and Risks Facing Woolworths - Essay Example On a global front, Woolworths needs to keep identifying risks and prospects that keep emerging as well as those already in existent. A noteworthy characteristic of the retail industry that Woolworths face is the rising intensity of competition and domination by few companies (Seth & Randall 2001). Therefore, accurate evaluation of social and environmental opportunities and risks is very critical to enable the company to adopt apposite strategic measures. Understanding of these opportunities and risks helps in establishment of effective growth policies and expansion plans or in a more threatening environment measures that pre-eminently upholds the current position or if need be, allows pull-out from markets. Understanding of future opportunities and risks also helps toshape how the management base their strategic decisions. This is because they need to balance and in consideration of other factors, they determine a realistic and sustainable direction to the retail business. Opportunit ies and risk analysis enables a retail chain, such as Woolworths, to identify the global markets and areas that are viable to open up new ventures and how exactly to take care of the needs of the clientele (Richardson & Williams 1995). In addition, they determine the allocation of resources.Opportunities and risks can be in any aspect of the company. They can be in skills and abilities of the employees, location and environment of operation, products and branding, financial and informational management. Social Opportunities and Risks One of the most noteworthy social opportunities is the global Woolworths Trust EduPlant programme (Burch & Lawrence, 2007). In collaboration with other organizations and educational institutions in several countries, for instance South Africa the programme sponsors and funds educational institutions in the growing of healthy foods in a sustainable system (Burch & Lawrence 2007, p 24). For over the last ten years, EduPlant programme has supported thousan ds of educational institutions to boost food security in the societies and to improve the nutrition of their students (Burch & Lawrence 2007, p 24). The programme runs annually and begins with an invitation to various stakeholders in the education sector to go for one day all-expense paid permaculture training.Those who are trained on various permaculture techniques become food security campaigners in their societies. They are then sponsored to grow food gardens that produce much-needed food for the schools within the communities. Land portions within the schools are converted into healthy greened environments and the trained educators are empoweredto share their permaculture skills with other members of the community (Burch & Lawrence, 2007). After the learning institutions have grown their gardens, they register them into a national competition. They continue to get support and guidance from trained permaculture specialists who visit the institutions and finally choose 63 finalist s. All selected finalist institutions are awarded with cash rewards and environmental, health and agricultural resources. Further rewards- in both cash and resources are given to the winners of various other categories. This programme is a great opportunity to market and promote Woolworths and make it a great brand name across all generations as well as boost its corporate social responsibility regarding

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Environmental and strategic analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Environmental and strategic analysis - Essay Example This is due to its low cost strategy. Like any other company, when the management makes decisions it has to be guided by different factors that directly or indirectly affect the company. All organisations are affected by external and internal factors and like any other company, Ryanair is not left behind. It is advisable for the airline to use the PEST analysis to view its policy making strategies thus look at how the company is performing to ensure that it does not lose market. Such analyses will ensure that the management is able to keep, ignore and adapt strategies to make the company more competitive and unique (West, 2007). The paper will examine Ryanair airline by using Porter’s 5 forces and McKenzie 7s framework. To understand how Ryanair Airline has been able to survive to the resent times it is advisable to use Porter’s 5 forces analysis to critically examine its strategies. The strategy and its concepts came from Michael Porter. The 5 forces were derived from Industrial Organisation economics which generally helps a company to know its intensity in competition moreover show what attracted the company to join the market. It should be noted that the amount of profit is what attracts the company to the market whereas unattractiveness is simply the implementations of poor strategies that lead to a loss. According to the forces, when a company approaches pure competition it means that it is becoming unattractive. According to Porter such implementations are referred to as micro environment which are within the company and they do affect how a company is able to reach its customers. Customer service provision is what brings about profit in the company (McGahan, 2004, pp. 203-205). The st ages of the framework are discussed below step by step. According to the strategy, a company can decide to offer products or services that will act as substitutes to change the demand of its customers. The

Monday, January 27, 2020

Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay

Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay In this paper we will examine some relevant similarities and differences between two widely known and practiced religions: Islam and Christianity. Although, these two religions have easily identifiable similarities and differences, they are both large players in the religious world today with an impressive number of followers. Also, each of these religions had been delivered with basic rules of guidance, although the rules in themselves were different. Islam had, from Mohammad, the Five Pillars, while Christians had been given the Ten Commandments, delivered by Moses. Another aspect of each of these religions that is very similar is that each is a Book religion. They each have their own book written down by disciples of their respective religion. The Islamic religion has the Koran, and the Christian religion has the Bible. Because Islam diverged from Christianitys beliefs, there are also some notable differences between the two. For example, the way in which each religion is expected to pray. Muslims pray alone and in congregation. When congregational prayer is executed, there are many rules and strict adherences to which they abide. They must pray this way a certain number of times each day and faces in a certain cardinal direction. For Christians, the prayer which is done alone is informal and at ones own discretion, as it is for the Islamic religion. However, congregational prayer for Christians is much less rigorous and strict, and can be done in a number of acceptable ways. Muslims are also expected to take a journey, called a pilgrimage, to their Holy Land whereas, this is not expected of Christians. Another notable difference is the way in which money is given to the church. In earlier days, and in some cases modern days, Muslims giving was in the form of a tax which was mandated. Christians giv e in the form of a tithe and are asked to give ten percent of their income. A very large and widely disputed part of these religions is the interpretation of the Bible. Some events that are disputed include which son Abraham sacrificed, the Virgin Birth and nature of Jesus, and the interpretation of monotheism and the Trinity. Islam and Christianity are religions based on many similar and different beliefs based on the fact that one was borne of the other. For this reason, we can pick up on a number of things that ring true in each religion and a number of things that are completely different between the two of them. Aside from the similarities and differences, each of these religions is still recognized in todays society despite the fact that they are both centuries old. Islam vs. Christianity Despite the fact that there are many similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity, both religions are significant in todays society, which is apparent in the grand number of followers each has amassed. Islam and Christianity are in themselves, complete religions with many followers. Islam was born of Christianity in that a large part of Islams basic belief structure is based on that of Christianity and some portions of the Bible. Because of this fact, there are a number of similarities and a comparative number of differences between the two religions. The beginnings of Islam are actually deeply rooted in Christianity, based on the conviction by the prophet of Islam, Mohammed that Christians had departed from belief in Gods message as revealed in their scriptures (Pike, 67). Approximately 610, the first of many revelations came to him and these visions were believed to have been delivered from God by the angel Gabriel (Pike, 17). Here we begin to see the similarities between the two religions as Gabriel is also the angel that brings news of Jesus birth (Jesus being the founder of Christianity) in Luke 1:26-32, of the Bible. The message that Mohammed received was that there was only one God, not many Gods as the then present day Arabs believed. This God was the creator of the world (Lewis, 8). For Christians the message of a single God was given during the inception of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:3 of the Bible, You shall have no other God before me. The creation of the world by this singular God is documented in Genesis 1:1. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. In the Islamic faith it is believed that this God would judge mankind, which also rings true in Christianity in Hebrews 10:30, The Lord will judge his people. For Muslims, followers of the Islamic faith, their single God (known as Allah) was considered just because he would judge every person according to his deeds (Catherwood, 99). In both religions, the result of this judgment day was either heaven or hell. Another similarity between both Islam and Christianity was the idea of forgiveness. Islam teaches that God is always ready to pardon the individual and restore him to the sinless state in which he started life. In Christianity, this same basic concept of forgiveness is accepted (Wiles, 561). After the death of Mohammed, certain essential principles were singled out from his teachings to serve as anchoring points for the Islamic community. These have come to be called the five pillars of Islam (Pike, 99-100). Comparably for Christians, the Ten Commandments are considered daily, divine laws. Also, each of these religions is one that has a book by which believers follow. For Christians this is the Bible, which was recorded by prophets and disciples to Jesus including Abraham, Moses, Elijah, and many others. The Bible is for the most part, ordered chronologically and Jesus teaches in parables (Bowie, 66). Likewise for Muslims their book is the Koran, which was a collection of the sayings and deeds of Mohammad, who was believed to be inspired to teach these things by Allah (Lewis, 44-45). However, because the Koran was assembled from remembrances of those who had learned it by heart, the chronological order is not used. The passages or suras were arranged from longest to shor test. In the beginning, for both religions, these teachings were passed along orally, but were later captured via the written word. These books serve as an additional guide for believers and stress the one idea of one God (Pike, 62). Despite these many similarities between Islam and Christianity many differences exist as well. One of these differences is prayer. Islam recognizes two forms of prayer, one being the personal and more informal form of prayer. The other is a ritual prayer which is often congregational with specific words and postures, to be offered five times a day: sunrise, midday, midafternoon, sunset, and before bed. Before Muslims pray ablutions are performed by washing the hands, feet, and face. A person called the muezzin calls for prayer and chants from a raised platform or minaret tower at the mosque. This prayer is started with the imam, the prayer leader, standing at the front of the mosque facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam. (This is the holy city because it was the death place of Mohammad). Each prayer consists of several units, during which the individual is standing, kneeling, or prostrate. At every change in posture, God is great is recited. The chief day of communal worship is Friday and believers gather at the mosque to pray, listen to portions of the Koran, and hear a sermon based on the text. The sermon may have moral, social, or political content. Islam has no ordained clergy, but there are men trained specifically in religion, tradition, and law (Peters, 126-129). For Christians prayer is done alone as well as in a congregation like Islam, but the rigors are far less painstaking. Prayer alone is done at ones own discretion, but traditionally is done at night or in the morning. Congregational prayer is usually headed by the preacher, priest, or another prominent member of the church. The congregation is usually seated in pews, but this can be done standing as well. Christians have a clergy that have been trained in theology and matters of religion and posses a degree from a seminary. The chief days of gathering is on Sundays, and believers pray, sing, listen to sermons, and read from the Bible during their communal gathering (Morris, 218). As you can see, t his is quite different from the Islamic religion. Another large difference in the two religions is the pilgrimage. For Muslims, the pilgrimage, or hajj, is an annual Muslim rite that every believer is expected to take part in at least once in his lifetime. From the seventh to the tenth day in Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar, thousands of Muslims converge on the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to visit the holy shrine of the Kaaba in the Great Mosque, which tradition says was built by Abraham. The pilgrimage was intended to reenact the hegira, the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 (Catherwood, 100). Christians do not have such a pilgrimage but many do visit the birth place of Jesus, the city of Jerusalem, and consider it an honor to do so. Fasting and the giving of money are two more distinct differences between the two religions. Because the Koran was first revealed to Mohammad in the month of Ramadan, the whole month was set aside as a period of fasting. During each day, from first light to darkness , all eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden. Upon the end of the fasting period, the second major festival of the Islamic year ensues and lasts several days. In contrast, Christians have the Lenten period, where Jesus was sent to the desert for forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by the devil. During this time, Christians usually give up something of importance, and although some fasting does happen, it is generally not as long as in the Islamic religion. The end of this forty day period is known as Ash Wednesday, which begins the holiest point on the Christian calendar (Good Friday and Easter) (Ware, 146-147). Also, the giving of money is somewhat different. For Muslims, the zakat is an obligatory tax, which is contributed to the state or community. In the modern period, the zakat has become a voluntary charitable contribution (Pike, 100). For Christians, this is known as tithe. Believers are expected to contribute ten percent of there salary to the church for Gods p urposes (Morris, 197). Also, some of the differences between Islam and Christianity are clearly discerned in the holy books of the Bible and the Koran. One such example is the sacrifice of Abraham. This event is interpreted very differently in both religions. Both books make the acknowledgement that Abraham was willing to make a tremendous sacrifice (Shamoun, 57). However, the difference between the interpretations lies in the name of Abrahams son. For example the bible says, By faith, Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son (Hebrews, 11:17). With this the Bible affirms that it was indeed Isaac who was offered up as the sacrifice. In Koran, however, Ishmael is the one who is purportedly offered up for sacrifice as Abrahams only son (Sura 11: 69-73). Another incident that is disputed between the two religions is the Virgin Birth and the Nature of Jesus. The Koran does support the virgin birth of Christ, but does not support the notion that Christ was resurrected. The Koran suggests instead that the Virgin Mary gave birth to a prophet, who was free from innate sin because he was virgin born (Dew, 1). The Bible then, supports the notion that the virgin birth existed, and the Virgin Mary gave birth to the son of God, In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him (Dew, 1 John 4:9, 1). Islam states that Christ is not divine, it rejects this ideal and is seen in the Koran, The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was no more than Allahs apostle and His Word which he cast to Mary; a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His apostles and do not say: Three. Allah is but one God (Dew, Koran 4: 171, 1). Jesus in the Bible, however, is believed to be God manifest in the flesh (1 Timothy 3:16). This leads into the Trinity of the Christian faith. Islam is monotheistic in nature, stating, For God hath said, Take not to yourselves two Gods, for He is one God. (Dew, Sura 16:53,1). Christianity is also monotheistic, but that God is made up of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; otherwise known as the Trinity. Christianity says, The Spirit the Lord Him (Dew, Isaiah 11:2, 1), which refers to the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and God. Islam does not support this idea and the Koran argues that Christianity supports the notion of polytheism by stating that the Godhead represents three different Gods, not one (Dew, 1). In conclusion, Islam and Christianity are two intricately woven religions that have some basic framework in common, but their beliefs diverge as well. For example, some of the similarities shared in the two are the angel Gabriel as a deliverer of important news, monotheism, God as the creator of the world, and judgment by God after death. Most of the differences seem to stem from Jesus role as a savior. For example, Muslims do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a prophet and therefore, the Trinity can not exist. Also, there are some deviations in similar stories that are related by each religion, like that of Abraham and his sacrificial son. Despite these difference and similarities, we can agree that Christianity and Islam are both significant players in the world of religion and todays society.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Memory and the Quest for Family History in One Hundred Years of Solitud

Memory and the Quest for Family History in One Hundred Years of Solitude and Song of Solomon Pierre Nora proposes that "the quest for memory is the search for one's history" (289). In their attempt to reconstruct the communal histories of their people, Toni Morrison and Gabriel Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez rely heavily on the use of memory as a means to rewrite the history of those oppressed because of race, class and/or gender in a world where historiography has been dominated by the white man. Memory is closely related to the reclamation of identity and history -- both personal and collective. Both memory and history dominate Cien Aà ±os de Soledad (One Hundred Years of Solitude) from the very beginning, where the character Aureliano Buendà ­a is introduced through his own recollections: "Muchos aà ±os despuà ©s, frente al pelotà ³n de fusilamiento, el coronel Aureliano Buendà ­a habà ­a de recordar aquella tarde remota en que su padre lo llevà ³ a conocer el hielo" (9) / "Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendà ­a was to remember that dis tant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice" (9). Like Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez, Toni Morrison claims memory -- as well as imagination -- as an essential part of the narrative act: "The act of imagination is bound up with memory. You know, they straightened out the Mississippi River in places, to make room for houses and livable acreage. Occasionally the river floods these places. 'Floods' is the word they use, but in fact it is not flooding; it is remembering. Remembering where it used to be. All water has a perfect memory and is forever trying to get back to where it was. Writers are like that: Remembering where we were, what valley we ran through, what the banks were like, the light... ...tive Literature Courses." Approaches to Teaching Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. Marà ­a Elena de Valdà ©s and Mario J. Valdà ©s. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1990. 21-32. Parkinson Zamora, Lois. "The Usable Past: The Idea of History in Modern U.S. and Latin American Fiction." Do the Americas Have a Common Literature? Ed. Gustavo Pà ©rez Firmat. Durham: Duke UP, 1990. 7-41. Pierce, Robert N. "Fact or Fiction?: The Developmental Journalism of Gabriel Garcà ­a Mà ¡rquez." Journal of Popular Culture 22.1 (1988): 63-71. Ricci Della Grisa, Graciela N. Realismo Mà ¡gico y Conciencia Mà ­tica en Amà ©rica Latina. Buenos Aires: Fernando Garcà ­a Cambeiro, 1985. Strouse, Jean. "Toni Morrison's Black Magic." Newsweek (30 March 1981): 52-57. Watkins, Mel. "Interview with Toni Morrison." New York Times Book Review (11 September 1977): 50.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Language Processing and Production Essay

This experiment investigated hemispheric specialisation and dominance with regards to language functions. It used a computer program to measure the amount of key presses achieved by participants in a given time across four different trials (1 with the left hand, no talking, 2 with the left hand whilst being asked questions, and the same two trials again with the right hand). The participants were 2nd year psychology students from which a cohort of 20 was selected for data analysis. A significant difference was found for the effect of hemisphere and language processing task present or absent. However, the means for each trial did not support left hemispheric dominance for language functions: more key presses were recorded when talking and using the right hand than when talking and using the left. Handedness and some involvement of the right hemisphere in language processing and production were also shown as appearing to influence the results obtained. The main conclusion to be drawn is that hemispheric specialisation and language dominance is a subject that needs further investigation in order to clarify the generalisability of conclusions made about left hemisphere language specialisations. Our brain consists of two halves; the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere receives information from and controls muscles in the right side of the body, whilst the right hemisphere receives information from and controls muscles in the left side of the body. Research using brain imagery and studies of brain damaged and split brain patients, to name just a few examples, has shown that some of our functions are controlled more by one hemisphere than the other, i.e. are more specialised for that particular function. This experiment aims to investigate these differing specialisations of the hemispheres more deeply and with particular regard to language. Research into language differences between the two hemispheres is widespread and supports the view that the left hemisphere is the more dominant. Marc Dax was the first to notice hemispheric differences in his brain damaged patients, after having seen many patients suffering from loss of speech. Dax found what appeared to be an association between the loss of speech and the side of the brain where the damage occurred. ‘In more than 40 patients with aphasia, Dax noticed damage to the left hemisphere; he was unable to find a case that involved damage to the right hemisphere alone’ (Springer and Deutsch, 1998, p. 1-2). By 1870 further evidence also began to surface, when other investigators began to realise that ‘many types of language disorders could result from damage to the left hemisphere’ (Springer & Deutsch, 1998, p. 1). For example, Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia: Broca’s aphasia causes speech problems associated with comprehension, resulting from damage to Broca’s area (situated in the left frontal cortex), whilst Wernicke’s aphasia causes word salad (hard to understand, jumbled speech), resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area (situated in the left temporal lobe). Later research has also supported Dax’s original findings, one example of such research concluded ‘that the left hemisphere is responsible for language in almost all right-handed individuals’ (Butler, S. R. 1997, p. 187). This research also links the additional factor of handedness to investigations of hemispheric lateralisation, an idea which has been supported by others in the field. For example: ‘In right handers †¦ , it is almost always the case that the hemisphere that controls the dominant hand is also the hemisphere that controls speech’ (Springer and Deutsch, 1998, p. 2), therefore it is possible that for left handers, as their dominant hand is being controlled by the right hemisphere, the right hemisphere may be responsible for speech control and other language functions instead of the left hemisphere. Additional research looking at right hemisphere lesions has demonstrated that the right hemisphere is responsible for some linguistical functions: finding that patients with such lesions may be ‘impaired relative to normal controls on certain tests of language’ (Corballis, C. M. 1983, p. 33). One study by Lesser (1974) reported such an impairment ‘on a semantic test involving comprehension of spoken words but not on a phonological or syntactic test’ (Corballis, C. M. 1983, p. 33), suggesting a small role for the right hemisphere in language processing. Kinsbourne and McMurray carried out valuable research using healthy participants, using a procedure similar to the current study (cited in Kalat, 2004, pg. 427). They asked participants to tap with a pencil on a piece of paper as many times as they could in one minute, first with their right hand then with their left, then asked them to do the same again whilst talking, they found that ‘for most right-handers, talking decreases the tapping rate with the right hand more than with the left hand’. This further supports left hemispheric dominance for language, as well as supporting the current study’s methodology and informing its hypothesis. As has been demonstrated most research supports left hemispheric dominance of language functions, but also links hemispheric specialisation with other factors and accepts that the right hemisphere holds some language comprehension control. This experiment looks for further supportive evidence and also briefly looks at handedness as a possible affecting factor. The study uses a finger tapping and language processing task, with the notion that the speed at which keys are pressed will be relatively similar with both hands. If however, if it is the case that language is more associated with the left hemisphere, then on average when processing language, the speed of the right hand will be slower than the left hand, presumably because the left hemisphere then has to do two tasks at once (right hand finger tapping and language processing). This is only the case however if all participants in the experiment have left hemisphere dominance for language, and is thus the reason we have recorded the handedness of our participants. As a result of previous studies and research the hypothesis for this experiment is: there will be differences in the number of taps made from each of the two hands when language is or isn’t being processed. Method Design The experiment used a fully repeated measures within-subjects design: all participants took part in all conditions. There was one independent variable, consisting of four different levels: left hand, talking, no talking and right hand talking, no talking. The dependent variable was the number of key presses made within the time limit of 30 seconds per trial.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Australian Law - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2748 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Tags: Act Essay Did you like this example? Apply key concepts Assignment semester 1 2014 Under the Criminal Law (Clamping, Impounding and Forfeiture of Vehicles) Act Of motor vehicles used by persons who are alleged to have committed certain Offences such as drunk driving, reckless and dangerous driving. The police can Take a vehicle away for 28 days if the person has been arrested or reported in Relation to those offences (not yet found guilty by a court). Given your Understanding of the rule of law and the separation of powers, do you think there Are potential concerns about the police being able to impose such a penalty Where a person has not yet been proven guilty of any offence? (You should refer to pp13-16 Learner Guide) Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Australian Law" essay for you Create order Criminal law (clamping, impounding and fortifying of vehicles) Act 2007 South Australia mentions that police can seize a vehicle from a person for 28 days if that person has been reported or arrested in relation to an offence even if the victim has not been found guilty of any crime. I believe that police should have the authority to seize a personà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s vehicle if they have had reports of crimes committed such as drink driving and dangerous driving because if the person is allowed to continue to drive, it creates a road hazard for other road users. I also believe that it doesnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t affect or break the separation of powers because the police are protecting the public by removing he hazard off the road by seizing/impounding the vehicle. 2. (A) Define the term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"statuteà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (the terms à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"legislationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ or à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Actsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ have the same Meaning). Name two statutes that are relevant to policing. Explain why most Legislation that is relevant to policing is South Australian (state) legislation rather Than Commonwealth (national) legislation. (You should refer to pp26-31 Learner Guide. You will also find the Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch27s02s02.php https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch27s03.php A) The team stature came from parliament it is a written law but can also be known as legislation or Act of parliament as well as it can be a state or commonwealth (national) law. 19 AC. Dangerous driving to escape police pursuit 19 A. causing death or harm by use of vehicle or vessel In my opinion, most legislation that is relevant to policing is because it was made/ brought of the state parliament because it is designed for South Australian roads/ rules. (B) An important legal concept that is relevant to policing is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“duty of careà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . This concept has developed through common law. What is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"common lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢? (You should refer to pp45-47 Learner Guide. You will also find the Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch27s02s01.php). B) Common Law also known as case law and judge à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" made law is where a similar case has been through the court allowing the judge to look over the judges recording and relate them onto his case at hand. 3. (a) In September 2012, John Gardner introduced the Liquor Licensing (Supply to Minors) Amendment Bill 2012 as a private memberà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s bill. The proposed law (bill) creates a new offence of supplying alcohol to minors at a private residence without parental consent. What are the steps in the legislative process that need to happen for this bill to become law in South Australia? Do you think the bill is likely to become law? (You should refer to pp34-37 Learner Guide. You should also refer to the South Australian Parliament website: https://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/AboutParliament/HowParliamentWorks/TheParli amentaryProcess/Pages/HowaBillbecomesanActofParliament.aspx https://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/AboutParliament/GlossaryOfTerms/Pages/Gloss aryofTerms.aspx ) 3. A) the steps for the liquor licencing (supply to minors) Amendment bill 2012 as a private bill would need to follow the steps of parliament which are as followed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"initiationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ which is where the bill is introduced into parliament but the minister responsible provides copies of the bill is circulated. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"First Readingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in this session the name of the bill is read out and there is no debate on the bill and they set a date for the next session. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Second Readingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ the general principles of the bill are read by the minster who introduced it and there can be a general debate on the bill. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Committing stageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ the house formed into a comity to examine the bill as well as to debate the bill can be done by the speaker of the house vacating/removing the chair and chairman of the comity. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Third Readingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ at the this stage there is little or no debate on the topic of the bill as well as this stage concludes with the readings. It will now be transmitted to the other house of Parliament and follow the same steps as it followed in the house that it originated from and once it has gone through that house it will return the first house where the amendments will be accepted but if it cannot be agree upon the bill with lapse. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Royal Assetà ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ the royal asset is where once is has followed through all the steps of parliament and has been accepted by both house who agree upon the amendments it will need the Queensà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s representative( governor- general) to sign off on the bill at a federal level so that it can become law. (b) Recent changes to the Summary Offences Act 1953 include Part 3A that introduces a range of offences in relation to possession and distribution of weapons: https://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/C/A/SUMMARY OFFENCES ACT 1953.aspx Dangerous articles and prohibited weapons are defined by regulations (a form of delegated legislation: https://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/C/R/SUMMARY OFFENCES (WEAPONS) REGU LATIONS%202012.aspx What is delegated legislation? What are the advantages of this type of legislation? (You should refer to p38 Learner Guide. You may also find the Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch27s12s01.php). B) a delegated legislation is where parliament has the power and can delegate its law making powers over to another department if they need to expertise of that department like the Dangerous articles and habited weapons act. This can e passed over to the police force or defence force for the expertise which parliament may not have. I believe that this is a very good idea and has many advantages because it allows other groups /departments to deal legislation which is in their field of expertise and enhances South Australian safety. 4. You are the magistrate needing to decide the following hypothetical case: Ms Brown is being prosecuted for driving under the influence of alcohol in breach of the hypothetical section 40 of the hypothetical Road Control Act 1960 SA. Ms Brown agrees that she consumed a significant amount of alcohol and indeed her blood alcohol level was .18. However Ms Brown is pleading not guilty. The facts are that Ms Brownà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s car had broken down and was being towed by her friend in a ute using a tow rope. Police observed Ms Brown steering her towed car which was swerving across the marked lanes on South Road, Mile End. When police stopped Ms Brown (and her friend) they observed that Ms Brown smelled of alcohol and that her speech was slurred. Ms Brownà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s defence is that she was not à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“drivingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  as she was being towed. Section 4 of the Act defines à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“drivingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  as being in control of the vehicle. (a) What is your decision? What rules of statutory interpretation do you consider and what rule or rules do you use to come to your decision? (Answer this part on the basis that there is no precedent to help you and refer to the literal rule and the purpose rule à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" pp43-44 Learner Guide). A) I would think the same as the police officers did when they first came across Ms Brown being towed by her friend. The reason that I think that she is guilty of drink driving is because she was sitting in the driverà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s seat, starting her car and she was being à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"towedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ but under section 4 of the Act, driving is defined by being in control of a vehicle which she clearly was doing. During legal argument in the same case, the prosecutor in the case draws your attention as magistrate to a previous similar (hypothetical) case, Police v Smith. Police v Smith was decided ultimately on appeal by the High Court of Australia. In that earlier case, the High Court said that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"drivingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ means to be in control of the vehicle. The High Court decided that, even though he was being towed, the defendant (Mr Smith) could operate the brakes, indicator, warning device, steering and lights of the car and so he had something to do with the movement and propulsion of the car. Judge Biggins considered that such a degree of control meant that the defendant was indeed driving, both in the ordinary sense of the word and as the word was used in the Road Control Act. Judge Biggins who wrote the leading majority judgement of the High Court decision also commented that if the car had been towed by a fixed bar used by a professi onal tow truck, then the decision would have been different. Do you as the magistrate have to follow this decision of Police v Smith? Explain your answer. (You should refer to pp45-54 Learner Guide. You may also find the Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch27s02s01.php) B) the case police Vs Smith is very similar to the current case involving Ms Brown because they were both being towed and both have control of their vehicle to a degree because Ms Brown and Mr Smith both had control of their vehicles in the sense that they could are operating the breaks, indicators, warning devices, steering and the lights so they could slow down or turn but as the prosecutor point out, this was a case for the high courts of South Australia. They also stated that Mr Smith was driving both in the ordinary sense at the word and as the word is used in the road control act. All of this evidence suggests that Ms Brown is guilty of driving over the limit (drin k driving) because she has enough control over the car to be classed as driving but if she was to call a professional tow truck, the outcome could be completely different. 5. Discuss à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“reasonable cause to suspectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . How does it affect the actions of police? You should refer to pp147-149 Learner Guide. You will also find The Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lsc.sa.gov.au/dsh/ch05s01.php 5. A) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Reasonable cause to suspectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ means under section 75 of the summary offences act 1953 states that; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a member of the police force, with-out any warrant other than this act, at any hour of the day or night may apprehend any person when the member find committing, or has reasonable cause to suspect of having committed, or being about to commit, an offence.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ I believe that this would affect the actions of police in many ways because they would be able to arrest a person whom they thi nk (suspect) is about to commit unlawful crime if police suspect someone has or is about to commit a crime they have the power to ask for name or address but if police think that it is faults they can ask for evidence to clarify the statement. 6. Explain the powers of police to search people, places and vehicles. (You need to refer to the Summary Offences Act 1953, pp150-152 of the Learner. You will also find The Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch03s01s02.php https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch03s01s04s02.php). 6. A) the powers of police to be able to search people, places or vehicle at any time if they have reasonable cause to suspect that the person places or vehicle have stolen goods, unlawful objects or evidence. Police must have the suspicion based on grounds that would raise in their mind of a reasonable person before they can act and police must follow section 68 of the summary offence as well as under section 67. The commission er of police has the authority to issue general search warrants to detectives and officers in charge of police stations in the country and managers can be issued with general search warrants. If they have a general search warrant it allows them to break/entre into building/ cars if they have a reasonable suspicion if a crime is about to be or has been committed. 7. List as many reasons as you can as to why a person may not be granted bail. (You need to refer to the Bail Act, p150 Learner Guide you will also find The Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch03s02s01s01.php). 7. A) A person may not be granted bail under the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Bail Act 1985 pact 5 (enforcement and termination of Bail). If the arrested person has been arrested for a serious crime or is involved in organised crime. The arrested person can also have their bail terminated if they donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t comply with bail agreement and be placed in jail up to 2 year or to p ay $10,000 fine as a maximum penalty. 8. When a young person under the age of 18 years is detected committing a minor offence, the Young Offenders Act provides police with several options for dealing with the young person. Describe and discuss those options. (You should refer to pp158 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" 163 Learner Guide and you will also find The Law Handbook online helpful: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch06s02s03.php) 8. A) In 1993 legislation were enacted in South Australia to deal with young offenders these legislation are called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the youth court act 1993 (SA)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the young offenders act 1993 (SA)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The education act amendment (truancy) Act 1993 (SA)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. The aim of these acts are to get young people (youth) which are people aged between 10-18 years of age to accept responsibility for their behaviour., these legislations have been set out 3 tiered sustes for juvenile justice for youths. The following 1 and 2 tiers of the pre-court diversion aply to youth if they are a first offender or a low level offender and can be delt with by a police caution, formal or informal caution. Formal cautions are where a senior or a special youth police officer will conduct a meeting down at the police station with their legal guardian and the police officers will explain to the youth the circumstance of the caution and the meeting will be kept on an officer record even after the youth turns 18 years of age it wonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t be counted in adult proceeding. The concern that can be issued to the offending youth can range from 75 hours of community service which is ten days, compensation to the custom of the offence or apologise to the victim which is mainly in writing and to take another appropriate action such as performing unpaid work for the victim. An informal caution is where an investigating police officer can give an on the spot caution/ warning with out any punishment which can be of the record but they will still have to include it in their patrol log for future youth court matters if it arises. Investigating police officers will also caution the youthà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s parents but no future action has to be taken against the youth or their parents. The youth that is found guilty of an offence can also receive add penalties that can be imposed like à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Detention in secure care for up to three yearsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Be subject to home detention for a period of up to six months, provided the accommodation is available and appropriate, and monitoring device is compatible, a period of community service work of up to 500 hour, to be completed within a period not exceeding 18 months, pay a fine of up to $2500 for an offence, lince disqualification if the youth does not hold a current drivers linces then the disqualification would prevent the youth from obtaining oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Youth offenders that commit a serious offence like murder or attempted murder can be elected by the Police or Director of Police to be dealt with as an adult when the youth stands trial if they are found guilty of murder in the Supreme Court will have a sentence of impressment for life. Reference list